Oil Sands

3d image of a 1.5mm3 of Athabasca sand at reservoir conditions. Porosity is 32% and permeability is 4,143mD

Oil sands are often comprised of grains immersed in and supported by a viscous liquid phase of heavy oil and/or bitumen. Traditional laboratory measurements of such samples are extremely difficult due to their delicate and friable structure. Ingrain can directly image the 3D pore structure of oil sand on irregularly sized and shaped fragments as they come from a well. Moreover, we can apply a numerical re-compaction procedure to such digital objects to close the large pore gaps presumably introduced by the expansion of the oil at surface conditions (as in the samples shown below). Simulations of traditional laboratory experiments on these objects produce the transport, electrical, and elastic properties of oil sands at the in-situ conditions

Production Rate vs. Cumulative Production

Using data derived by Ingrain calculations on images such as the Athabasca sand, we can forward model recovery under various production conditions.

The example on the next page illustrates modeled recovery capacity of four different reservoir units as their characteristics are altered by changes of viscosity and wettability.